Niall MacKenzie, “The Jacobites’ “General”: Spanish John’s Evidence for the History of Military Bagpiping,” Scottish Tradition Vol. 25 (2000).
Very interesting insights on the role of bagpipe in the military – its use in place of the drum for the conventional calls of European warfare based upon the earliest evidence we have of the use of the pibroch tune Cogadh no Sìth (PS 204). Here is a quote from Spanish John:
“we were awakened at break of day . . . by all the Highland Bagpipes playing the general, Cogga na si, having been alarmed by their scouts, who reported that the Duke of Cumberland had sent a much superior force by three different routes to surround them . . . .”
With kind permission from the Center for Scottish Studies at the University of Guelph.