Gaelic Names of Pibrochs

We are grateful to the late Roderick Cannon for his permission and practical assistance in making this monumental resource more accessible. It was first published in 2009 as an alphabetical list, lightly updated in 2013. His entries on each Gaelic pibroch title are now maintained and updated on the relevant tune page(s) of this site. There are currently 313 such pages, but as 30 pibrochs have no name of any kind and a few have only an English name, Cannon’s entries are distributed on roughly 270 pages where they are found under the heading Notes on Gaelic Titles. This arrangement makes the information more accessible to players and allows his research to be updated more efficiently. Each entry has a credit linking to this page where Cannon’s Introduction, Sources and Bibliography (below) are also being revised in order that the ‘living’ form of this resource remains as rigorous and reliable as when Cannon left it.

Its online transformation began in 2014 – tailoring entries for the context of altpibroch.com, responding to new scholarship and adding audio recordings of pronunciation. Numerous revisions have resulted from conversations with Allan MacDonald since January 2015, with John MacInnes since April 2015, and with Colm Ó Baoill, Ronald Black and Seán Donelly since October 2015. All significant revisions to the text are listed below with links to the tune pages concerned.

Cannon gave his work the title Gaelic Names of Pibrochs: A Concise Dictionary. It was first published at piob.info and piobaireachd.co.uk as a PDF scanned from a hard copy. However, all the pages between Fuaim and Tha’n were missing. In March 2013, a lightly revised, searchable PDF was published by Ross Anderson at piob.info. From this, in August 2014, David Hester copied each entry into the relevant Alt Pibroch Club tune page(s), adding links and passing a gentle editorial comb through the material. In April 2015, he edited and integrated my audio recordings, since when I have been gradually updating the text to reflect the new insights generated by my conversations with the five Gaelic scholars named above.

This is work in progress. The audio discussions are sometimes a step ahead of the text and one change of editorial policy (combining double entries where different tunes have the same name) has yet to be fully implemented. If you find errors, omissions or discrepancies, I would be very grateful if you would write to barnaby@pibroch.net or leave a comment on the relevant page.

These Notes on Gaelic Titles have an invaluable counterpart: Roderick D. Cannon, ‘Gaelic names of pibrochs: a classification’ in Scottish Studies, 34 (2000–2006), pp 20–59. Two versions are available online: a searchable preprint and a scan of the printed version.

Barnaby Brown, 2016

Notes revised since November 2014
4, 6, 81621, 2532, 46, 4858, 7578, 818493, 9599100, 102103105107, 108, 124, 132137, 140, 141145146, 147173178, 193, 196201, 203204, 209213217, 230, 244, 305308

Passages revised in the Introduction, Sources and Bibliography below are marked in brown. Cannon’s abbreviations or ‘codes’ have silently been harmonised with the source pages of this site and links are being added as facsimiles become available online.

Introduction

This is an alphabetical listing of the Gaelic names of pibrochs, taken from original sources. The great majority of sources are manuscript and printed collections of the tunes, in music notation appropriate for the bagpipe, that is, in staff notation or in canntaireachd. In addition, there are a few arranged for piano or fiddle, but only when the tunes correspond to known bagpipe versions. The main purpose of the work is to make available authentic versions of all authentic names, to explain apparent inconsistences and difficulties in translation, and to account for the forms of the names as we find them.

The emphasis here is on the names, not the tunes as such. Many tunes have a variety of different names, but here the variants are only listed in the same entry when they are evidently related. Names which are semantically unrelated are placed in separate entries, even when linked by tradition such as Craig Ealachaidh and Cruinnneachdh nan Grandach. But in such cases they are linked by cross-references, and the traditions which explain the connection are mentioned in the discussions. Different names which merely sound similar are also cross-referenced, whether or not they apply to the same tune. Different names for the same tune, with no apparent connection, are not cross-referenced. Different tunes with the same name were given separate entries in the Concise Dictionary (2009, rev. 2013); at altpibroch.com, these have been combined, duplicated on the relevant tune pages and cross-linked – e.g. An Ribean Gorm (PS 4).

In each entry the first name, in bold type, is presented in modern Gaelic spelling except that the acute accent is retained, e.g. mór not mòr. Every reference to a tune includes the Piobaireachd Society catalogue number, linked to the tune page of that number. An asterisk * before the name indicates that the Gaelic name is not in any of the sources, but is reconstructed from the other information given. [These asterisks were removed in 2014 by David Hester but perhaps should be restored].

Original names are taken from the heading above the music, retaining spelling, capitalisation, accents and punctuation. Where the same source gives more than one name, i.e. Gaelic and English, they are separated by a solidus (/). Gaelic names are given before English, but this does not necessarily reflect the order in the original. Linking punctuation, or words such as “or” or “alias”, are usually omitted. In some cases it is evident that the names were entered on different occasions, or by different hands, but this is not usually mentioned here. Names which were evidently added much later are ignored. An ellipsis (…) stands for something which could not be read in the original, or else for words which are legible, but are omitted here, the omission being explained in the discussion section of the entry. A tilde (~) stands for the whole of the remainder of a name, when only a part of it is being referred to: in other words an expression like ‘An ~ K3 index’ means that in the index of K3 the name is the same as the one just quoted, except for the addition of An at the beginning. Square brackets [ ] enclose material which is considered to have omitted accidentally and is restored here. The insertion [sic] marks an apparent error, to confirm that it is present in the original.

Sources are identified by the codes listed below. When two codes occur together, like ‘K1 and KK’, this means that the name or names are given identically in both. Two of the sources contain historical notes in a separate section; spellings from these are only cited where there is some difference, using the reference ‘D2 notes’ or ‘KB notes’. When a music source has an index in addition to the names written above the pieces, this is only cited in cases where the index is believed to have been compiled by the original writer, and where there is some difference. Thus ‘K3 index’ as a source after a name means that the name in question is taken from the index and not from the body of K3. The only sources which are hyperlinked are those for which a facsimile is not available immediately above, under Primary Sources.

The translation given in boldface is meant to represent as clearly as possible the meaning of the main entry. Exceptionally, this is followed by a modern ‘conventional name’ – a less literal translation that has been established through usage.

In the discussion of each name, the first points dealt with are details of spelling, including evident printing and clerical errors, and where possible, explanations of how these came about. Then come points of grammar and vocabulary. The term ‘vernacular’, sometimes applied in this section, has no derogatory overtones, but rather the reverse as the aim of the discussion is to ascertain as far as possible what the actual usage was among pipers at the time of writing. I make no apology for going into such small details. They are all points which were puzzling to me until I had them explained by experts. My approach is that of a Gaelic learner who wishes to extract all the information that a name provides, and no more.

As already stated, the emphasis here is on names, not tunes. People and places are identified where possible, but only briefly and when not obvious. Traditions are not recounted at length but references may be given to published versions, especially when there has been a recent scholarly discussion. Composers’ names and dates are given only in cases where these are specified in the source and where it seems likely that they are firmly based on the writer’s personal knowledge. In practice this means that very few dates are given earlier than 1790.

This project has been on the go for many years and I want to thank all the friends who have made it possible. For help with material and information I thank the staffs of the National Library of Scotland, the College of Piping and the National Piping Centre; also Richard Powell who was always generous with access to his superb private collection, and Keith Sanger for advance information from his own studies. My helpers with Gaelic have included Ronnie Black, Iain Fraser, Allan MacDonald, John MacInnes, Nan MacQueen, the late Rev. William Matheson, Colm Ó Baoill and Margaret Stewart. Even so, there will still be plenty of errors, all mine. This version will be replaced with revised versions from time to time, and I will be most grateful to anyone who will point out errors and omissions. I can be reached directly at the addresses below.

Roderick D. Cannon
January 2009, revised February 2013
revised Barnaby Brown October 2015

On 9 June 2015, the world of Highland piping lost its greatest scholar. If you find errors or omissions in the latest revisions of Cannon’s work, now distributed across this site under Notes on Gaelic Titles, then please write to barnaby@pibroch.net or leave a comment on the relevant page.

Sources

1778 Western Fencibles Order Book. Canna House Archive, Isle of Canna.

1783 Circumstantial Account. NRS GD248-27-2-49 (Seafield papers).

1785 Plan of the Competition. NLS Acc. 7451, box 19, folder 3, 1st item. Reproduced in Piping Times 19/6, p. 9.

A – MacArthur-MacGregor manuscript (1820). NLS MS 1679. For critical edition and facsimile see F. Buisman et al., (2001). Only titles which seem to be in the original handwriting are listed here. ‘A index’ refers to the index by Angus MacKay.

ACD – Alexander Campbell’s diary (1815), ‘A slight sketch of a journey made through parts of the Highlands and Hebrides; undertaken to collect materials for Albyn’s Anthology’. Edinburgh University Library MS La. 51.

C1 – Colin Campbell’s Instrumental Book, vol 1 (1797). NLS MS 3714.

C2 – Colin Campbell’s Instrumental Book, vol 2. NLS MS 3715. Written on paper watermarked 1814 but considered to be derived from a previous version.

CK – A copy by Angus MacKay, included in SC, of four tunes which occur in C2. Actually considered to have been copied from an earlier version of C2. See F. Buisman (1987), and R. D. Cannon (2009).

D1 – Donald MacDonald [1820]. A collection of the ancient martial music of Caledonia, called piobaireachd… D. MacDonald, Edinburgh. 3rd edition, improved, Alex. Robertson, Edinburgh [1822]. For critical edition see R. D. Cannon and K. Sanger (2006).

D2 – Donald MacDonald (1826). NLS MS 1680. Titles marked ‘D2’ are from above the music; those marked ‘D2 notes’ are from the printed History of the Airs which is bound into the volume. In the body of the MS the tunes seem to have been untitled at first. For critical edition see R. D. Cannon and K. Sanger (2011).

Dj – Donald MacDonald, junior, son of the above (1826). This manuscript is lost, but careful copies of the tunes are in the Kilberry Papers, NLS MSS 22098-22117.

DOW – Dow, Daniel [c.1783]. A collection of ancient Scots music for the violin, harpsichord or German flute … consisting of ports, salutations, marches or pibrachs, etc. Edinburgh.

E – Elizabeth Ross manuscript. ‘Original Highland airs collected at Raasay in 1812 by Elizabeth Jane Ross’. Edinburgh University, School of Scottish Studies Library, MS 3. For transcriptions of piobaireachd, see P. R. Cooke (1985-6).

F3 – MacFarlane MS, vol 3 [c. 1741]. NLS MS 2085.

G – Niel MacLeod of Gesto (1828). A collection of pibaireachd or pipe tunes, as verbally taught by the McCrummen pipers in the Isle of Skye, to their apprentices. Printed by Lawrie & Co., Edinburgh.

GN – Gesto Notes. ‘Remarks by Captain McLeod as far as he has been informed by the late John McCrimmon piper Dunvegan Isle of Skye’. Manuscript bound into a copy of G – National Library of Scotland, Mus.D.s.138. A version was printed in L. MacDonald (1883). During the period when the original was lost, Roderick Cannon sometimes cited it as ‘the Skeabost MS’.

H – Anonymous ‘Hannay-MacAuslan’ Manuscript (c.1811). NLS Acc. 11600, formerly Dep. 201. For an account, see F. Buisman (1985–6).

J – Joseph MacDonald [1760]. A compleat theory of the Scots Highland bagpipe…Edinburgh University MS La. III. 804. For a modern edition and facsimile see R. D. Cannon (1994).

JK – John MacKay [1840s]. Manuscript of piobaireachd. National Library of Scotland, Acc 9231. The manuscript has been greatly defaced and titles which were originally written in pencil have been erased and overwritten in ink. Only those early ones which can still be read are included here with reference JK, but see also next entry.

JKA – Angus MacKay’s note and index (1848) bound with JK. Only Gaelic titles from this source are mentioned here, and only if they differ from either JK or any of Angus’s compilations KB, K1, K2, K3, KK, KS.

KB – Angus MacKay (1838). A collection of ancient piobaireachd or Highland pipe music…Edinburgh published by the Editor. ‘KB notes’ refers to the section entitled ‘Historical and Traditional Notes on the Piobaireachds’.

K1 – Angus MacKay (c. 1840). Manuscript [vol 1] NLS MSS 3753.

K2-3 – Angus MacKay (c. 1840). Manuscript [vol 2] NLS MSS 3754. The tunes are numbered in two sequences, 1–39 and [1, 2], 3, 3, 4–5, 16–41, referred to here as K2 and K3 respectively.

KK – Angus MacKay’s ‘Kintarbert’ manuscript (c. 1841). NLS Acc. 11516. For accounts of the manuscript, see R. D. Cannon (1999), and B. MacKenzie (1999).

KS – Angus MacKay’s ‘Seaforth’ manuscript (1854). National Library of Scotland, MS
3744.

MCM David Glen, The Music of the Clan MacLean. Edinburgh, [1900]. Only four titles
from this source are entered here, i.e. those that differ from other early sources.

O – Oswald, James [c. 1746–1769]. The Caledonian Pocket Companion. 12 vols. London.

P – Patrick MacDonald [1784]. A collection of Highland vocal airs, to which are added… some specimens of bagpipe music. Edinburgh.

R – Peter Reid (1826). National Library of Scotland, MS 22118.

S – Sharpe, Charles Kirkpatrick. Music manuscript. National Library of Scotland, MS 3346 (but catalogued as a book, Ing.153).

SC – Specimens of Canntareachd. Copied by Angus MacKay on paper watermarked 1853. NLS MS 3743. The texts cited here are published in R. D. Cannon (1989).

Bibliography

‘Abrach’ [i.e. Donald C. MacPherson] (1873). ‘Ceol nan Gaidheal’. An Gaidheal, ceud mios an Fhogharaidh 1873, pp. 116-169.

‘Abrach’ [i.e. Donald C. MacPherson] (1874b). ‘Raonull Mac Ailean Oig’. An Gaidheal, ceud mios an t-Samhradh 1874, pp. 72–73.

Black, Ronald (1972–4). ‘Colla Ciotach’. Trans Gaelic Soc. Inverness xlviii, pp. 201–243.

Black, Ronald (2008). The Gaelic Otherworld. Birlinn, Edinburgh.

Blankenhorn, V. S. (1978). ‘Traditional and bogus elements in MacCrimmon’s Lament’. Scottish Studies 22, pp. 45-67.

Brown, B. (2015). ‘Blàr na Pàirce – The Battle of Park, c. 1491 – Part 2’. Piping Today 75, pp. 27-33.

Buisman, Frans (1987). ‘From chant to script. Some evidences of chronology in Colin Campbell’s adaptation of canntaireachd.’ Piping Times 39, No. 7, pp. 44-49 (April 1987).

Buisman, Frans (1991). “Paidh na Bodaich Nail’ ach Ruairidh”. Piping Times 43/4, pp. 21-27 (January 1991).

Buisman, Frans (1992). ‘The System of Modes in Ceol Mor’. Proc. Piobaireachd Society Conference, Bridge of Allan, April 1992, Session II.

Buisman, Frans (n.d.). ‘Transformations of piobaireachd in 18th-century Music Collections’, edited by R. D. Cannon, to be published.

Buisman, Frans, Wright, Andrew and Cannon, Roderick D. (2001), The MacArthur- MacGregor Manuscript of Piobaireachd (1820). The Music of Scotland, Ceol na h- Albainn, Series No 01. Published by the Universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in association with The John MacFadyen Memorial Trust and The Piobaireachd Society.

C. M. P. [i.e. Calum Mac Pharlain (Malcolm MacFarlane)] (1894). ‘Piobaireachd Chloinn Pharlain – Clan Farlane’s Pibroch’. The Celtic Monthly, 3, p. 39.

C. M. P. [i.e. Calum Mac Pharlain (Malcolm MacFarlane)] (1895). ‘ ‘Thain a’ Ghriogaireach. – The MacGregor’s Gathering’. The Celtic Monthly, 3, p. 79 (January 1895).

Cameron, Alexander (1892, 1894). Reliquiae Celticae. 2 vols. Inverness.

Campbell, Alexander (1816-18). Albyn’s anthology; or, a select collection of the melodies and vocal poetry peculiar to Scotland and the Isles… Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 2 vols. Reprinted, Norwood, Pennsylvania, 1973.

Campbell, Archibald (1951). “ ‘Bealach nam Bròg’ and its origin”. Clan Munro Journal, pp. 23-26 (1951). An offprint is filed in NLS MS 22115 (f. 49).

Campbell, Donald (1862). The language, poetry, and music of the Highland clans. Edinburgh.

Campbell, Jeannie (2001). Highland Bagpipe Makers. Magnus Orr Publishing.

Campbell, John Francis (1880). Canntaireachd: articulate music. A. Sinclair, Glasgow.

Campbell, John L., and Collinson, F. (1979-1981). Hebridean Folksongs. 3 vols. Oxford.

Campsie, Alistair (1980). The MacCrimmon Legend. Canongate, Edinburgh.

Cannon, Roderick D. (1974). ‘The Battle of Harlaw. A lost piobaireachd?’. Piping Times 26, No. 12: 7–13.

Cannon, Roderick D. (1994). Joseph MacDonald’s Compleat Theory of the Scots Highland Bagpipe (c. 1760). New edition with introduction and commentary. Distributed by The College of Piping, 16–20 Otago Street, Glasgow.

Cannon, Roderick D. ([2000] 2006). ‘Gaelic names of pibrochs: a classification’. Scottish Studies, 34 (2000-2006), pp 20-59 (2006).

Cannon, Roderick D., and Sanger, Keith (2006, 2011). Donald MacDonald’s collection of piobaireachd. Volume 1 (1820), Volume 2 (Manuscript). The Piobaireachd Society.

Cannon, Roderick D. (2007). ‘Who got a kiss of the King’s hand? The growth of a tradition’. In Defining Strains[:] the musical life of Scots in the Seventeenth Century, ed. James Porter. Peter Lang, Bern.

Cannon, Roderick D. (2009). ‘The Campbell Canntaireachd manuscript: the case for a lost volume’. In The Highland bagpipe: Music, History, Tradition., ed. Joshua Dickson. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, pp. 255-278.

Celtic Melodies, being a collection of original slow Highland airs, pipe reels and cainntearachd… [c. 1823]. Robert Purdie, Edinburgh.

Collinson, Francis. (1975). The Highland Bagpipe[:] the History of a Musical Instrument. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Cooke, Peter (1972). ‘Problems of Notating Pibroch: A study of ‘Maol Donn’’. Scottish Studies, 16, pp. 41–59.

Cooke, Peter R. (1985-6). ‘Elizabeth Ross and the piping of John MacKay of Raasay’. Proc. Piobaireachd Society Conference, Bridge of Allan, March 1985 and April 1986.

Donnelly, Seán (1984). ‘Feaghan Geleash’. Ceol Tire, 25, pp 5–6, 11–12.

Donnelly, Seán (1988). ‘Irish cranngal ‘cran’ – a piper’s technical term’. Celtica, XX, pp. 132–140.

Donnelly, Seán (1991). ‘Cranngha(i)l, a sound effect in music’. Celtica, XXII, pp. 16–17.

Donnelly, Seán (2008). ‘A Scottish Gaelic piping term in a bardic poem to the MacDonnells of Antrim’, Ulster Folklife, 52, pp. 1–16.

Donnelly, Seán (2015). “Dastirum gu Seinnim Pìob ‘I am Proud to Play a Pipe’: a possible explanation”. Piping Times, forthcoming.

Dwelly, Edward (1901-1911) The illustrated Gaelic-English dictionary. 9th edition, Glasgow, 1977.

‘Fionn’ [= Henry Whyte] (1898). The Celtic Lyre, a collection of Gaelic songs, with English translations. Glasgow.

‘Fionn’ [= Henry Whyte] (1904). The martial music of the clans. Glasgow.

‘Fionn’ [= Henry Whyte] (190X). ‘Ronald MacDonald of Morar, a famous piper’, in The Celtic Monthly, 19, pp 167–169.

‘Fionn’ [= Henry Whyte] (1911). The historic, biographic and legendary notes to David Glen’s collection of piobaireachd. Edinburgh.

Fraser, Alexander D. (1907). Some reminiscences and the bagpipe. Edinburgh.

Grant, Isabel F. (1959). The MacLeods, the History of a clan. Reprinted 1981. Edinburgh. Gregory, Donald (1836). History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland. 2nd edition 1881; reprinted Edinburgh 1975.

Grimble, Ian (1965). Chief of MacKay. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Gunn, A., and MacPharlane, Malcolm (1899). Orain agus Dain le Rob Donn MacAoidh. Iain MacAoidh, Glasgow.

Haddow, A. J. (1982). The history and structure of ceol mor. M. R. Haddow. Reprinted 2004, The Piobaireachd Society.

Hewitt, D. (1982). ‘The development of “The Bonnets of Bonny Dundee” ’. The Scott Newsletter, No. 1, pp. 7-9. (Seen in Cambridge University Library).

Johnson, David (1984). Scottish fiddle music in the 18th century. Edinburgh.

Johnson, James (1787-1803). The Scots Musical Museum. 6 vols, Edinburgh. [1787], 1788, 1790, 1792, 1796, 1803. Many editions, the one quoted here being of two volumes, ‘with illustrations of the lyric poetry and music of Scotland by William Stenhouse’ and foreword by Henry George Farmer. 2 vols, Folklore Associates, Hatboro, Pennsylvania, 1962.

Kennedy, Duncan [1836]. A Laoidheadair Gaelic… An dara clo-bualadh. To which is added, Short tracts on the Reformation; The invasions of Coll Macdonald…[etc]. Copy in the National Library of Scotland, Blair.98.

Kennedy-Fraser, Marjorie (1909-1921). Songs of the Hebrides. 3 vols, London (c.1909, c. 1917, c. 1921).

Kuntz, Andrew (1996-2008). The Fiddler’s Companion. www.ibiblio.org. MacAlpine, Neil (1832). A pronouncing Gaelic dictionary. Printed for the author, Edinburgh.

McCaughey, Terence (1996). “Cumha la Iain Ciar Dhùn Ollaidh”. Scottish Gaelic Studies, vol. XVII, pp. 213-220.

MacDonald, Allan M. (1995). The relationship between pibroch and Gaelic song: its implications on the performance style of the pibroch ùrlar. MLitt Thesis, Edinburgh University.

MacDonald, F. D. (1892). Lecture to ‘a recent meeting of the London Gaelic Society, as reported in The Oban Times, 10 December 1892, quoted by C. S. Thomason in a handwritten addition to the Donald MacDonald manuscript, folio 10r = page 9 of the printed ‘History of the Airs in this Volume’. MacDonald, Joseph. See source J.

MacDonald, Kenneth (1888-9). ‘A modern raid in Glengarry and Glenmoriston. The Burning of the Church of Gillechriost’. Trans. Gaelic Society of Inverness, XV, pp 11-34. MacDonald, Keith Norman (1895). The Gesto Collection of Highland Music. Edinbane, Skye.

MacDonald, Keith Norman (1901) Puirt-a-Beul. Glasgow.

MacDonald, Lachlan, of Skeabost (1883). ‘Remarks by Captain MacLeod, as far as he has been informed by the late John MacCrimmon, piper, Dunvegan, Isle of Skye.’The Celtic Magazine VIII, No. XCIII: 435–455.

Macdonald, Norman (ed.) (1975). The Morrison Manuscript[:]Traditions of the Western Isles by Donald Morrison[,] Cooper[,] Stornoway. [Stornoway: no imprint].

MacDonald, Rev. A., and MacDonald, Rev. A. (1911). The MacDonald collection of Gaelic poetry. Inverness.

MacGill-eain, Somhairle (1985). Ris a’ Bhruaich. The criticism and prose writing of Sorley MacLean. Edited by William Gillies. Stornoway.

MacGregor, Rev. Alexander (1872-3). ‘Piobaireachd agus Cèol nan Gàidheal.’ Trans. Gaelic Soc. Inverness, II, pp. 19-22 (part of a longer address in Gaelic, pp 6-25).

MacInnes, Iain I. (1988). The Highland bagpipe: the impact of the Highland Societies of London and Scotland, 1781-1844. M. Litt. Thesis, Edinburgh University.

MacIver, J. (1966). ‘Remarks on the titles of ceol mor tunes from the Campbell canntaireachd collection.’ Piping Times 19, No 2: 7–11; No. 3: 6–8.

MacKay Notes. Historical and traditional notes on the piobaireachds [printed in A. MacKay, A collection of ancient piobaireachd… Edinburgh, 1838, pp [1], 2–14.

MacKay, William (1905). Chronicles of the Frasers[:] the Wardlaw Manuscript… Edinburgh.

MacKenzie, Bridget (1995). ‘The Laird of Anapool and his Lady’ Piping Times 47, No. 9, pp. 24-29; No. 10, pp. 16-21.

MacKenzie, Bridget (1998). Piping traditions of the North of Scotland. Edinburgh. MacKenzie, Bridget (1999). ‘Kintarbert.’ Piping Times 51, No. 11: 21–25.

MacKenzie, John (1841). Sar-Obair nam Bard Gaelach. The Beauties of Gaelic Poetry. Many editions, e.g. John Grant, Edinburgh, 1907.

MacKenzie, Niall (2000). ‘The Jacobites’ “General”: Spanish John’s evidence for the history of military bagpiping’. Scottish Tradition, 25, pp. 3-25.

MacLean, Sorley. See Mac Gill-eain.

MacLeod, Ruairidh Halford (1987). ‘MacLeod of Colbeck’s Lament’. Piping Times, 39, No. 12, pp 44-46 (September 1987).

Martin, Christine and Alasdair (1996). Angus Fraser Collection of Scottish Gaelic Airs. Taigh nan Teud, Upper Breakish, Isle of Skye.

Matheson, Rev. William (1938). The songs of John MacCodrum. The Scottish Gaelic Texts Society, Edinburgh.

Matheson, Rev. William (1970). The Blind Harper. The Scottish Gaelic Texts Society, Edinburgh.

Morrison, Donald (c. 1820). Manuscript, Stornoway Public Library. See N. Macdonald (1975).

Morrison, Hew (1899). Songs and Poems of Rob Donn. John Grant, Edinburgh. Morrison, Rev. Roderick (1791-99). ‘Parish of Kintail’, in The Statistical Account of Scotland, vol 6, No. XXIX, pp 242 ff.

Newton, Michael (1999). Bho Chluaidh gu Calasraid[:] from the Clyde to Callander.Stornoway.

Ó Baoill, C. (1998). Bardachd Chloinn Ghill-Eathain. The Scottish Gaelic Texts Society, Edinburgh.

Ó Baoill, C. (1996). ‘Caismeachd Ailean nan Sop: the literatim text.’ Scottish Gaelic Studies XVII, 295–297.

Ó Baoill, C. (1998). ‘Caismeachd Ailean nan Sop: towards a definitive text.’ Scottish Gaelic Studies XVIII, 89–110.

Ó Baoill, Colm M. (1999). ‘Moving in Gaelic musical circles. The root lu- in music terminology. Scottish Gaelic Studies, XIX, pp 172-194.

O’Sullivan, Donal, and Ó Súilleabháin, Mícheál (1983). Bunting’s Ancient Music of Ireland. Cork.

Oswald, James [c. 1739]. A curious collection of Scots tunes for a violin, bass viol or German flute. Edinburgh. The copy consulted is in the Rowe Music Library, King’s College, Cambridge. Rw.110.167(1).

PS. Piobaireachd …edited by Comunn na Piobaireachd (The Piobaireachd Society) 15 vols, 1925-1991. References to this series are given by volume and page number, thus PS6, p. 187, the page numbers being those of the most recent editions.

Sanger, Keith, and Kinnaird, Alison (1992). Tree of strings… a history of the harp in Scotland. Temple, Midlothian.

Sanger, Keith (2009) Piping Times in press.

Scott, Walter. Waverley, Note XV. (The novel was first published in 1814; the notes were added later and are appended to most modern editions).

Stewart, Pete (2007). Three Extraordinary Collections. Hornpipe Music, Pencaitland. Thomason, Charles S. (1900). A Collection of Piobaireachd… Ceol Mor. C. S. Thomason, London. Reprinted in C. S. Thomason ([1905] 1975).

Thomason, Charles S. [1905]. A Collection of Piobaireachd… Ceol Mor. C. S. Thomason, London. This revised edition actually has an unrevised title page, still dated 1900. Reprinted in C. S. Thomason ([1905] 1975).

Thomason, Charles S. ([1905] 1975). Ceol Mor Notation. Ceol Mor. EP Publishing Limited, East Ardsley. This is actually a reprint of a composite volume, incorporating all of the three previous items.

Thomson, Derick S. (1968). ‘The Harlaw Brosnachadh: an early fifteenth-century literary curio.’ In Celtic Studies: Essays in memory of Angus Matheson, ed. J. Carney and D. Greene, London. pp 147–169.

Tolmie, Frances (1911). Untitled, known as Tolmie collection. A complete issue of Journal of the Folk-song Society, No. 16, i.e. vol iv, part 3, London, 1911.

Watson, William J. (1926). The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland. Edinburgh.

Watson, William J. (1932). Bardachd Ghàidhlig. 2nd edition. Stirling.