Tonality & Structure

Use this table to sort the 313 pibrochs notated by 1841. Have fun playing around with the order in which you sort the columns. You can sort by scale (pitches used or omitted) and structure (the nearest calpa or Ùrlar ‘frame’).

The nine categories of calpa have more to do with utility than reality. They are a street-view rather than a satellite-view map – useful but not accurate. Pibroch composers had great fun playing off the tension between what the brain expects and what actually happens – so don’t expect the calpa to be observed strictly. They are the patterns an expert listener would most easily recognise. When settings depart from them it is not necessarily a sign of corruption. More often than not, it is the whole point: a display of skilful craftsmanship, a sign of cultural confidence.

I like to think of them as reductionist rationalisations that facilitate memorisation, teaching and extemporaneous (re)composition – pibroch’s equivalent to the 24 measures of Welsh cerdd dant (‘string craft’), structures supposedly drawn out of music by a council that met at Glendalough around 1100, convened by the high king of Ireland. They are a theoretical construct, ‘coarse-graining’ or removing noise so that a clearer pattern emerges, one that can be taught and helps everyone to get their bearings when the territory is unfamiliar.

Tonality & Structure

         PS no.Edited English titleClosest measure
-ABC-EF-A1March for a BeginnerFL
-AB-DEF-A23The Sister’s LamentFL
-ABcDEFgA24Lament for Finlay: Hiharin hinotraFL
GABCDE-Ga29Hiharin himtra hodrodrodroFL
gABCDE-GA30Hiharin himtra hodrodroocheFL
gAB-DEfGA31Lament for the ClericFL
-ABCDEFG(a)35One of the Cragich: Hiharin hõdin hihorodoveaFL
GAB-DE-GA37MacLeod’s ControversyFL
gABC-EFG-38Hiharin hioen hodroeo hoenFL
-AB-DEF--40Hiharindare chedarecheFL
gABCDEFGA48Lament for Robert Sinclair’s WifeFL
GAB-DEFGA50A Prelude: Hioemto hinemFL
GAB-DE--(A)71Hindre harõdinFL
gABCDEF-(A)100Lament for Alasdair DeargFL
GAB-DEfGA103The man with the weak pipeFL
GAB-DEF-A113A Taunt on MacLeodFL
--B-DEFGa126Hihorodotra cheredecheFL
gAB-DEFga127A Prelude: Hihorodo hioenoemFL
(GA)B-DEFGA128Hihorodo hihararaFL
-(a)BC-EF-A131Salute on the Birth of Rory Mor MacLeodFL
gABC-EFGa143Lament for Queen AnneFL
GAB-DE-GA168MacNeil’s MarchFL
gAB-DE-Ga176Lament for Ronald MacDonald of MorarFL
gaB-DEfGA197Lament for the Laird of ArnabollFL
-AB-DEF-A223Lament for MacLean of LochbuieFL
-ABC-EFGa267Hiharin hioen hodroen hioenFL
(G)AB-DEFGA293Lament for the Little SupperFL
-ABC-EF-A300Lament for Red Hector of the BattlesFL
GAB-DE---46A Flame of Wrath for Patrick CaogachI
GAB-DE--(A)55Young George’s SaluteI
GABC-E--(A)73Chisholm of Strathglass’s SaluteI
-ABC-E--(A)74Lord Breadalbane's MarchI
-ABCDEf--84MacNeil of Barra’s MarchI
GABCDE--(A)91I am proud to play a pipeI
GABCDE-G-105SlanfuiveI
GAB-DE--(A)108The Stewarts’ White BannerI
GAB-De---111The MacDonalds’ SaluteI
GAB-DE---112The Rout of the Lowland CaptainI
-AB-DEF--118The Earl of Ross’s MarchI
-ABCDEFg(A)146Lament for Dunyvaig CastleI
(G)ABCD---(A)153The White Wedder with the Black TailI
GAB-DE-G-155Lament for MacSwan of RoaigI
GABCDE---162Clan Cameron’s GatheringI
-ABC-EF-(A)166Lament for the Laird of CrossI
GABCDE---204War or PeaceI
-ABC-Ef--217The Rout of BendoigI
(G)ABC-EF-(A)225The Old Men of the ShellsI
-AB-DEF-A277Mr MacNeill Campbell’s FavouriteI
GABCDEFG-116Hiõtrotraho hiobabemLI
-ABCDEF-A152Salute to DonaldLI
GAB-DEFGA191Hihorodo haoLI
-AB-DEF-A236Sir Ewin Cameron of Locheil’s SaluteLI
(g)aB-DEF-A239Lament for the ChildrenLI
GAB-DEFG-255The Pretty DirkLI
GABCDEF--306Lament for Sir James MacDonald, 15th of Sleat LI
GABCDE--(A)49Lament for HughLW
-ABC-EF(g)A51The Old Woman’s LullabyLW
--B-DEF-A63The Left Hand TuneLW
GABCDEF--83In Praise of MoragLW
GABCDEFGa114Lament for the Viscount of DundeeLW
-ABC-EF-A147Little Prince, you are my joy LW
GABCD----164The MacDonalds’ GatheringLW
-aB-DEF-A188The Brothers’ Lament: Hihararao haenLW
GAB-DE(f)G-282The King’s TaxesLW
GABC-EF-(A)307The Battle of Bealach nam BrogLW
GABCDEFGA7TaviltichO
GABC-EFG(A)10Hiharinõdin hiharindro hiharinõdinO
GAB-DEfGA20The Ùrlar TuneO
(g)AB-DEF(g)A21The Park PibrochO
GABCDEFga54The Comely TuneO
(G)aB-DEFGa64Lament for Rory MacLeodO
GAB-D----107The Blue Ribbon / The Horse's Bridle TuneO
GABC-EF-A135Lament for the Harp TreeO
GABCDEFGa145May Johnny return safelyO
GABCDEFGa187Beloved ScotlandO
GAB-DEFGA198The MacDougalls’ GatheringO
GAB(C)DEf--309In Dispraise of MacLeodO
GABCDEfGa3The Unjust IncarcerationP
gABCDE-(Ga)18Hiharintra hotradreP
-AB-DEF-A26Lament for Donald of LagganP
-ABC-E(fGA)36One of the Cragich: Hiharin hiodreenP
-ABCdEFgA72The Sutherlands’ GatheringP
GABCDE--(A)87Cherede cheredeP
-ABC-E--(A)89Good health to you, Donald P
GABCDE-g-98The Half-Finished PibrochP
GAB-DE---99Sobieski’s SaluteP
GAB-DE---132The Finger LockP
-ABC-EFGa136Lament for Cameron of DungallonP
-ABC-EF-(A)157The Marquis of Argyll’s SaluteP
GAB-DE---173The Prince’s SaluteP
G(a)B-DE-GA190The Daughter’s LamentP
-AB-DEF-a200Lament for MackintoshP
-ABC-EF--224Clan MacNab’s SaluteP
GAB-DE---231The MacLeods' SaluteP
-AB-DE---232The Mackenzies’ GatheringP
GAB-DEfGA234The Lament for the UnionP
GAB-DE---235The VauntingP
GABCD----245Lament for the Son of King AroP
-ABCDE---246MacKinnon’s SaluteP
GABC-EF-A261Lament for Lord LovatP
gABCDEF-(A)271Lament for Duncan MacRae of KintailP
-ABCdEF-A272The Company’s LamentP
(g)ABC-EFGA273Lament for the Great SupperP
GABC-e---274MacKenzie of Gairloch’s SaluteP
-ABC-EF(g)-279Lament for Mary MacLeodP
GAB-DEfGA280Mrs Smith’s SaluteP
-ABCDE---295We will take the highwayP
-ABC-EF-A305The Battle of the BirdsP
GABCDEfG-313Hindorõdin cheredeP
GAB-DEF--315Lament for AbercairneyP
gABCDEfG-316Farewell to the Laird of IslayP
-ABCDEf--317Hiharin droo droP
GAB-DEF-A2The Carles with the BreeksRL
GABC-EF--8The Pride of BarraRL
-ABC-E---9The MacNabs’ GatheringRL
GABCDE---22Lament for the Lady of ArnabollRL
-AB-DEF-(A)32Isabel MackayRL
GABCDEF--34Duntroon’s MarchRL
-ABC-EF-A39Lament for Donald Duaghal MacKayRL
GABC-E-G-81Sutherland’s March / The BickerRL
-ABC-EF--82Lament for MacDonald of KinlochmoidartRL
(g)ABcDEFGa90Cherede darieveaRL
GAB-DE-Ga121Harrow’s MarchRL
-ABCDEF-A125The Brother’s Lament: Hihorodo hihorodoRL
GAB-DE-G-137Lament for Patrick Og MacCrimmonRL
-ABCDE-GA150Lament for the Old SwordRL
GAB-DEF(G)A172Lament for the SwordRL
gAB-DEFG-175Lament for the departure of King JamesRL
GAB-DEF--185Lament for CatherineRL
gaB-DEFGa192A LamentRL
gAB-DEFGA194Lament for Lady MacDonaldRL
GAB-DEF-A201The Piper’s Warning to His MasterRL
GAB-DE-GA207Lament for John Garve MacLeod of RaasayRL
gAB-DEFGA210Sir James MacDonald of the Isles’ SaluteRL
GAB-DE-Ga228Lament for Finlay: Himbam hiedreRL
GAB-DE---251Lady Doyle’s SaluteRL
GAB-DEFGA254Struan Robertson’s SaluteRL
-ABC-EF-A258Lament for King George IIIRL
GAB-DE-G-259Lament for MacLeod of MacLeodRL
GAB-DE-G-260MacKenzie of Applecross’s SaluteRL
(g)AB-DEF--265Lament for Captain Donald MacKenzieRL
gABC-EFG-269The Highland Society of London’s SaluteRL
(g)AB-DEFGA275MacDonald of Kinlochmoidart’s SaluteRL
GABCDE---276MacKenzie of Millbank’s SaluteRL
GAB-D----285Lament for Allan OgRL
GAB-DEf--289Cluny MacPherson’s MarchRL
GAB-DEFGA291The Battle of GlensheilRL
-AB-DEF-A296The Frisky LoverRL
GAB-DE-G-319The Gunns’ SaluteRL
GAB-DE-(GA)4The Blue RibbonW
-AB-DE--(A)5The Red RibbonW
GABCD---(A)6Hillock of the Carrion Crow / MacIntyre’s SaluteW
GABC-e(F-A)11MacLean of Coll’s GalleyW
-ABC-E--(A)13The Rout of GlenfruinW
GABCDE---14King James VI’s SaluteW
GABCDE--(A)15Lament for the Only SonW
GABC----(A)16The Gathering of Sìol ThormoidW
GABCd----19The Frasers’ MarchW
-ABC-EFGa25Castle Menzies / The Frasers’ SaluteW
-ABCDEFGA27The Battle of AuldearnW
GAB-de--(A)28Pibroch of One KnollW
-AB-DE-G-41Lament for CarwhinW
GAB-DEfg-42Lochend’s MarchW
GAB-DE-G-43Melford’s MarchW
GAB-DE-G-44Lament for Captain Archibald Campbell of GlenyonW
GAB-DE-G-45Pipers’ MeetingW
GAB-DE---47Lament for MacKinnonW
(G)ABCDEF-A53One of the Cragich: HindorõdinW
gAB-DE--(A)56Salute to InverarayW
GAB-DEF-(A)57MacCrimmon will never returnW
-ABC-EF-(A)58The Glen is MineW
-AB-DEF-(A)59The Tutor of Clanranald’s MarchW
GAB-DEf-(A)60Eòghainn nan Cath sang like thatW
-AB-DEF-(A)65Lament for Iain CiarW
GAB-DEF-(A)66McIvor’s MarchW
-ABC-EF--67Mary’s PraiseW
GAB-DE(FGA)68Leaving KintyreW
GAB-DE--(A)69Hindre cheenW
GAB-DE--(A)70Glencoe’s MarchW
-ABC-EF-(A)75MacCrimmon’s SweetheartW
GABCDE-(GA)78Lament for John Garve MacLean of CollW
-ABCDEF-A80Hindro hintroW
GAB-DE-(G)-85Lament for the Duke of HamiltonW
GAB-DEF-(A)86Lament for the Laird of ContullichW
-ABC-EF-A88The Massacre of GlencoeW
-ABcDEF-(A)92Lord Breadalbane’s Welcome to ScotlandW
GABCDE--(A)93Lament for MacDonald’s TutorW
-ABCDEf--94The Rout of the MacPheesW
gAB-DEF-(A)95Alasdair Mor MacDonald of Boisdale’s SaluteW
GAB-DEF-(A)96MacDonald of Keppoch’s MarchW
GAB-D----104Head Under CoverW
GAB-DEfGA106Salute to DrunkennessW
-ABCDEF--109Lament for LochnellW
GABCDEFG-110One of the Cragich: Hioemtra haentraW
GABCDE(fGA)117Chehotrao hodroW
GAB-DE-G-120Campbell of Airds’ MarchW
GAB-DE-G(A)123Maclean of Kingairloch’s MarchW
GAB-DEFGA133One of the Cragich: HiotrotroW
GAB-DE-G-134MacNeil is Lord thereW
GAB-DEF--138Graham’s MarchW
GABCDE--(A)139Fair HoneyW
GAB-DE--(A)140Weighing from LandW
GAB-DE---141Dead’s LamentW
-ABCDe--(A)142The Duke of Perth’s MarchW
GAB-DE--(A)144Ewan’s CrònanW
-ABCDEfGA149Hõdinbain hodreW
GABC-E-(GA)151All the old men paid but RoryW
GAB-DE-G-154Mac Mhic Alister’s Dead LamentW
gABCDEFg(A)156One of the Cragich: Hõdin hiotraW
-ABC-EF-(A)158The Battle of AtholeW
GAB-DE---159The GroatW
GABCDE---163The Gathering of the ClansW
GABCDEF-A165The End of Inchberry BridgeW
GAB-DE---167The Camerons’ MarchW
GAB(C)DE---169The End of the Little BridgeW
GAB-D(E-GA)170Glengarry’s MarchW
GAB-DE---171The End of the Great BridgeW
GAB-DE---174The MacDonalds of Clanranald’s GatheringW
(G)ABCDEF--178The Little SpreeW
GABCDEf--179Hinotrao hobaindrehoW
GABCDEf--180Beinn a GhriaimW
GAB-DE---181The Bells of PerthW
GABCDE---182Hector MacLean’s WarningW
GABCDE---184The Highland Society of Scotland’s SaluteW
-ABCDEF-(A)189Lament for Lord MacDonaldW
GABC-EF-a193The MacRaes’ MarchW
-ABC-EF(GA)195Lament for MacKenzie of GairlochW
GAB-DEF-(A)203Clan Ranald’s SaluteW
GABCDE-g-205Young Neil’s SaluteW
GAB-DE--(A)206Clan Campbell’s GatheringW
GAB-DE--(A)208MacDonald of Staffa’s SaluteW
-ABC-EF-(A)209The MacKays’ BannerW
-ABC-EF-(A)212The MacKenzies’ MarchW
GAB-DE--(A)218The Menzies’ SaluteW
GAB-DE---221The Battle of WaternishW
GAB-DEf--227The Parading of the MacDonaldsW
GAB-DEF-(A)229The Battle of SheriffmuirW
gABCDEF-(A)233Angus MacDonald’s Attack on the MacDougallsW
-ABC-ef-(A)237The Red Speckled BullW
-AB-DEF-(A)241The men went to drinkW
GABC-EF--242Coolin [? Cuillin or Coulin]W
GAB-DEFGA243The Earl of Seaforth’s SaluteW
GABCD----248The first tune in pipingW
-ABC-Ef--249Lament for GlengarryW
GABCDEF-a256The Munros’ SaluteW
GABCDE---263Lament for Prince CharlesW
GAB-DE---264The Battle of BalladruishaigW
-ABC-EF--268Hindre hindreW
GABCDEF--270Duntroon’s WarningW
-ABCDE---281The Battle of the Inch of PerthW
-ABC-EF-a283Lament for Captain MacDougallW
-ABC-EF--284Lachlann MacNeill Campbell of Kintarbert’s SaluteW
GAB-DEF--286The Boat TuneW
GABCDEF--287Hiharerin dehindoW
-ABC-EF-A288Lament for the Earl of AntrimW
GABCDE---290The Fairy FlagW
GAB-DEF--292Mrs MacLeod of Tallisker’s SaluteW
gAB-DE---294The Hen’s March o’er the MiddenW
-ABC-EF-(A)297The MacDuffs’ GatheringW
GABC-E--(A)298Cluny MacPherson’s SaluteW
GaB-DEFG-299Eòghainn nan CathW
-ABC-E---301MacLeod of Tallisker’s SaluteW
GAB-DEF-(A)302A GatheringW
GAB-DEF--303Hindre cheemtraW
GABCD----304Catherine’s SaluteW
-ABC-EF-(A)308The Middling SpreeW
GAB-DEf--310The Waking of the BridegroomW
GAB-dE---311The SaunteringW
GAB-DE---312Himto cheredeW
GABC-(E)---314Hindo hindo hindo rõdinW
-AB-DEF--318Lament for Capt. Wemyss SutherlandW
GABC----(A)12Square Rea’s MarchWW
GABCDE---17MacLeod of Gesto’s SaluteWW
GABCDE--(A)33Hiharin hodinWW
GABC-EF-a52The Grants’ GatheringWW
GAB-DEF-(A)61Lament for Sir James 'Mor' MacDonald, 9th of Sleat WW
-ABC-E--(A)62Mary’s TuneWW
GABC-E-(GA)76Clan Chattan’s GatheringWW
GABC-E---77The MacLeans’ MarchWW
GABCdEfG-79Hindro hindro hiotrodin himtoWW
-AbCDE---97The Battle of StromeWW
GABCDEF--101The MacDonalds are SimpleWW
-ABCDEF-(A)102Donald Gruamach’s MarchWW
GAB-DE---115My King has landed in MoidartWW
GAB-DE---119Grain in Hides and Corn in SacksWW
GAB-DEFGA122Hinotrao hinotraWW
(G)ABCDe---124Lament for Brian O’DuffWW
gAB-DE---130Lament for Campbell of AirdsWW
GABCDE--(A)148The Black Wedder with the White TailWW
-ABCdEf--160The Blind Piper’s ObstinacyWW
-ABC-EF-A161Too Long in this ConditionWW
-ABC-EF-(A)177Black Donald’s MarchWW
GAB-DE---186Murray of Abercairney’s SaluteWW
GABCD----196Lady Margaret MacDonald’s SaluteWW
GAB-DE---199You’re welcome, Ewen Locheil WW
-ABCDEF(GA)202The MacGregors’ SaluteWW
GAB-DE--(A)211Mackintosh of Borlum’s SaluteWW
GABC-EF--213I got a Kiss of the King’s HandWW
-ABC-EF--216MacLeod of Raasay’s SaluteWW
-AB-DEF-A220Lament for Donald Ban MacCrimmonWW
GABC-EF-A222Scarce of FishingWW
GABCD----226The MacLeans’ GatheringWW
(g)ABC-EF--230The Big SpreeWW
GAB-De---240The Little-Finger TuneWW
GABCDE---244MacDonald’s Salute, or Duntroon’s Salute WW
GABC-EF-A247Lament for Colin Roy MacKenzieWW
GABC-EF--252The Red Hand in the MacDonalds’ ArmsWW
GAB-DEf--253Davidson of Tulloch’s SaluteWW
GAB-DEf--257The Battle of WaterlooWW
gABC-EF-A262Lament for MacLeod of ColbeckWW
-ABC-EF--266The MacKays’ Short TuneWW
GABCDe---278Hiharinõdin hiharindro himbanõdinWW
-ABC-EFGa214My dearest on earth, give me your kiss WW
250Norman J. MacLeod's Salute
183Sir John MacGregor's Salute